Elucidating the mechanism

25 Mar

The assumption that the effects of metformin are exclusively mediated by AMPK has recently been challenged by genetic loss-of-function experiments.

Since then it has been hypothesized that metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by interfering with the c AMP/PKA pathway acting as a glucagon antagonist.

To accomplish this, they have characterized the Drosophila gene clueless (clu), and found that it is critical for mitochondria function.

clu mutant flies are male and femal sterile, highly uncoordinated and short-lived, and have swollen mitochondria in their flight muscle and germ cells.

Although the mechanism of action of biguanides remains imperfectly understood the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is unchallenged.

Metformin was developed based on the natural product galegine.

and acetylene black is proposed as a high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries and their electrochemical performances, as well as related energy storage mechanism, are investigated.

The nanocomposite electrode delivered a high reversible capacity of 563 m Ah g XRD and the results reveal the existence of a solid solution of two or more species during dis/charging.

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While studies of PINK1 and Parkin have been important, there are still many unanswered questions about the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control.

rejection is attributed to both size-exclusion and Donnan (charge)-exclusion mechanisms.

At a neutral membrane charge, a size-exclusion mechanism dominates the rejection of both anions. Based on the insight gained from these experiments, a layer-by-layer (Lb L) polyelectrolyte modification was applied to the NF270 membrane to control its surface charge.

Because mitochondria supply most of the chemical energy for the cell, they are critical for the normal function of high-energy tissues such as neurons.

Mitochondria can become damaged carrying out their normal role in the cell, and the cell must be able to subsequently actively target and destroy damaged mitochondria, a process called mitophagy.